Usages des logiciels de simulation dans les dispositifs hybrides en formation des sciences pour élèves ingénieurs : étude évaluative a l’ENSP de Yaoundé
PhD thesis in Sciences de l'éducation, held the 12/18/2019
Led by Pierre FONKOUA Ecole doctorale Droit et Sciences Humaines (DSH), Université de Cergy. BONHEURS – Bien-être, Organisations, Numérique, Habitabilité, Education, Universalité, Relation, Savoirs ; TECHEDULAB – Technologies Educative
Board of examiners composed of :
- Rodica AILINCAI: Professeur des Universités, Université de la Polynésie française, France, Rapporteur
- Georges-Louis BARON: Professeur des Universités, Université Paris Descartes, France, Rapporteur
- Bernard COULIBALY : Maître de conférences, Université de Haute Alsace, France, Examinateur
- Pascale BRANDT-POMARES: Professeur des Universités, Université d’Aix-Marseille, France, Présidente
- Pierre FONKOUA : Professeur des Universités, Université Cergy Pontoise, France, Directeur
Keywords: Hybrid device, software, apprenticeship, engineering sciences, MASTEL/MASSICO, education, remote training
In the last three years, our research was about the "Usages des logiciels de simulation dans les dispositifs hybrides en formation : étude évaluative à l'ENSP de Yaoundé". We investigate on two study subjects. The first one is on the study and hybrid devices evaluation such as MASTEL & MASSICO devices which are offered by l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique (ENSP) in Yaounde I University thanks to its distant training programmes. As for the second subject, it deals with the impacts' study resulting from simulation softwares uses. Educational contents of said-devices on the effectiveness of the engineering students' training in a remotely context resort to the simulation softwares uses. A subdivision in axis is important for our methodological approach in order to ensure an entire study of our research subjetcs.
The main identified research axes are:
- Description and analysis of ENSP's hybrid devices: Master Professionnel en Télécommunications (MASTEL) and Master professionnel en Sécurité des Systèmes d'Information et de COmmunication (MASSICO);
- Learners' perceptions on the effectiveness of simulation softwares' use for Science apprenticeship for engineers and
- Use of softwares in a teaching context of telecommunications in hybrid devices.
The diagnostic analysis of MASTEL & MASSICO devices reveals three categories of tools led in techno educational training environments. The first category is composed of tools which are not directly available on the training platform. However, we can find them in the design during lessons and practical work sessions. These are professional tools such as aerials, surge protectors, routers, switches, cable, and so on.
The second category is composed of immaterial tools found in digital EAD environments, especially in online activities. These are simulation softwares similar to OpenVPN, Omnipeek, Cisco Packet Tracer, the mobile radio communication tutorial, and so on.
The last category focuses on tools directly included in the Moodle training platform. For example, they are discussion or chat rooms, forums, wiki, etc. In that case, during the design of studied devices the educational design used is more oriented towards a more open interactional pattern. In this way, the tutor, colleagues and other external participants - moderators, platform managers, etc - are more present through tools like the chat room, forum, Wiki, Skype, Video, Audio, ...
According to Gros - the author - in 2001, the different categories of tools appeared in techno pedagogical environments enable to enjoy the educational side of said-tools without being able to prove their effectiveness in teaching-learning. We can also notice that 91% of respondents agree with the use of Moodle as a training platform. Moreover, the learners find it's easy to use. In fact, 96% of them declare that Moodle is easy to use.
Results coming out of mentioned axes show that simulation softwares are part of the learners' culture in training MASTEL & MASSICO from l'ENSP. More than 75% of the activities are based on software's use as tools of their achievements. The percentage also prove that the learners have participated to the use of simulation softwares. This method transforms the way of teaching, which is in accordance with Njingang Mbadjoin's work (2015).
The use of softwares in a training context fosters a skill-based teaching and a more individualized apprenticeship. This is accompanied by cognitive and/or metacognitive development of the learner. We can notice if this use brings satisfaction to important players, it's nonetheless true that the lack of remotely activities - using softwares - represents a major boundary of these softwares in MASTEL & MASSICO devices.
Even if the device included the options of distant manipulation, the issue will last because the savoir-faire developed doesn't cause social skills - attitude and behaviour - needed in the subject. In light of the implemented observation from the learners - during the face-to-face gathering phase - enabled to maintain that passing the test through the software doesn't completely turn social skills into a business environment.
This work was also confirmed during the phase of the learners' speech analysis. They think it would be better to balance the face-to-face and remote phases in MASTEL & MASSICO trainings. According to our research, the impact of the use of simulation softwares in a training context in engineering sciences permited to foster the acquisition of numerous skills, especially the synthesis competence (procedural skill), the analysis (exploratory skill) and operational (manipulative skill).
We can confirm that the engineering training devices studied (MASTEL & MASSICO) in distant phase give a procedural skill to learners. But the face-to-face phase gives them a manipulatory skill sought in a business environment. Economic, socio-political, energy and geographic factors represent an obstacle in the industrialisation of said-devices. As a result, there is an under-exploitation of tools led in Moodle platforms, where a large bandwidth is needed.
Gros, B. (2001). Instructional design for computer-supported collaborative learning in primary and secondary education. Computer in Human Behavior, 17, p. 439-451
Njingang Mbadjoin, T. (2015). Le changement par les technologies numériques en école d’ingénieurs: Étude d’impact. Thèse de doctorat, Science de l’éducation, Université Cergy Pontoise, France, 342 pages.