Thèses de doctorat en Sciences de l’information et de la communication

Les références qui suivent sont des thèses de doctorat en Sciences de l’information et de la communication soutenues de 2018 à 2020.  Sélection effectuée par M. Loffreda, le 16/02/21.

Azouz, K. (2020). Les lieux de savoir à l’heure du web des données : permanences ou mutations des pratiques ? [PhD thesis, Lille 3].

Thanks to its methods and permanent changes, the Internet is developing the practices and services of libraries, museums and archives. For the Internet users, it encourages these institutions to rebuild their knowledge perception, and restyle their methods of content spreading and development. Since the 2.0 Internet emergence, libraries, museums and archives are facing new use, and free as well as collaborative content. In fact, they are implementing the data web. They aim at improving their resources visibility and at promoting knowledge through the confluence of their ideals, techniques and content. Data web and its impact on advanced practices remain an important matter in our work with a double approach. The first one is historical and concerns knowledge places. The second one deals with the interactions like the method. The goal of this work is to show that data web isn't just a technical framework, but also the convergence vector of three different and additional places in their knowledge perception, jobs and methods. The innovation of this scientific research is linked to epistemological ranking, So, our thesis is about this matter.

Bouchereau, A. (2020). Les objets connectés au service de l’apprentissage [PhD thesis, Bourgogne Franche-Comté].

Apprenticeship ensures the transformation of essential data collected by our senses into useful knowledge or general ideals that are used in new situations and environments. Cognitive neurosciences prove that the apprenticeship mechanisms are based on cognitive (e.g. interrogating ourselves, being aware of our mistakes), physical (e.g. manipulating, moving) and social (e.g. discussing, working together) involvement. The learner bases his knowledge on the experience by discovering his environment, expressing possibilities and trying out. Learning is crucial because the growing evolution of information and communication technologies change the items, techniques and uses. The Internet of Items development (IdT) turns everyday physical items into connected ones that can collect data and act on the user environment. Apprenticeship becomes biological and artificial, and enables to create artificial intelligence systems. Those aim at analysing large volumes of data to mechanise tasks and help the users. Technologies can foster apprenticeship. They propose technical possibilities that are used to support the process of knowledge construction. So, the thesis is about apprenticeship in the IdT's context and study how connected items' particularities can be mixed to apprenticeship mechanisms.

Delias, L. (2019). L’âge des usages. Usages sociaux des technologies numériques par les adultes âgés et représentations du « bien-vieillir connecté » [PhD thesis, Paris 3].

From an approach including sociology of Internet use and critical gerontology, this thesis aims at showing the socio-historical context in the last decades. It led to the extension of social norms for seniors. Moreover, the incentive is able to lead a connected and active lifestyle. Then, our work tries to identify how seniors are informed thanks to the use of information and communication digital technologies (ICDT). A study including interviews with people aged 62 to 82, ethnographic observations in IT classes launched by retired associations and a corpus analysis of sociability websites for seniors, has been implemented. It is proved that ICDT's social uses accompany complex identity definition processes for seniors. Their shape changes depending on the institutions' orientation that have the speeches of "connected well-aging" and public ones. It adds the speeches of trajectory, and sense of belonging in terms of generation, gender and class of individuals. Nevertheless, these are the target of various appropriations.

Doutreix, M.-N. (2018). Wikipédia, encyclopédie et site d’actualités ˸ qualité de l’information et normes collaboratives d’un média en ligne [PhD thesis, Sorbonne Paris Cité].

Estimations, fake news, ideologies: Wikipedia had to answer to many critics since its creation in 2001. Yet contributors keep developing tools, labels and indicators in order to get a reliable information. This work takes an interest in implemented ways to increase the reliability of an online collaborative medium. The review that Wikipedia executes between an encyclopedic claim and taking charge of the news is invited to design it as a media encyclopedia. In fact, the news is treated instantaneously and sources used for this subject are often journalistic, participating in the "circular circulation" of media information. The encyclopedic side of Wikipedia is questioned by finding filiation's elements such as the hypertextuality, and by underlining the main epistemiological opinions such as the relation to sources and principle of point of view neutrality. Those both studied cases show the place of news in Wikipedia's uses and contributors' practices.

Entraygues, A. (2020). La place des réseaux socionumériques dans la culture de l’information : pratiques prescrites scolaires et pratiques d’information informelles des jeunes dans le second degré [PhD thesis, Bordeaux 3].

Our work aims at questioning epistemological matters of the information culture and RSN place in a school environment. It's essential to study how a culture of multiscalar and stratiform information is shaped through prescribed and informal practices in RSNs. Youthful information practices on RSNs, which are distributed between sharing and peers' information and communication research, question the documentary method implemented by librarians, managers within the school and the Media and Information Education. What are the connections between prescribed documentary practices and informal youthful ones? To what extent documentary methods prescribed by librarians influence the youthful informal information ones on RSNs? What shapes for the information culture centered around RSNs? To answer to these questions, we implemented a whole methodology based on interviews and sessions' observations. We added speeches' analysis and school documents. Through a prescribed informational apprenticeship, an information culture heads towards a critical approach of information. This culture turns education to a knowledge of operational and conceptual information, and shapes a culture of informational citizenship.

Heiser, L. (2019). Numérique et expérience vécue de l’élève en classe : un espace de communication en recomposition ? [PhD thesis, Toulon].

The goal of this work is to analyse how students - with a lack of knowledge - use the digital when it is entrusted to teachers. We focused on how the players of the classroom educational space make sense in a generalisation of technologies context that may have impacts on classes' production-reception. We based on a research procedure extending the REMIND project, which served to describe and understand a museum visit. It involved asking students to film teaching sessions thanks to a device, and helping them to comment their subjective video. The students' words were analysed with a specific language, named the hexadic sign. Moreover, we led semi-directive interviews with their teachers in order to understand their class construction methods. Our work demonstrates that teachers' experience responds to educational constraints that may cause differences with their students. Those develop a self-testing thought. To conclude, students' experiential stakes are hardly taken into consideration by teachers during their classes' production. In other words, it could promote the media and digital tools offered by the industrial and commercial sector.

Lafaye, R. (2019). Design et expériences dans la formation continue en ligne : la création de MOOC en agence [PhD thesis, Bourgogne Franche-Comté].

New technologies come one after another in training without any real answers to issues of online continuing education being provided. Yet research are led on the learners, design theory or characterisation of devices created in every introduction of a new technology. However, an analysis on the design is missing to consider positive changes and the introduction of research results into methods. In the era of MOOC and their use by the companies, how online continuing education is "chosen"? In the specific context of MOOC creation, the design activity and produced experiences describe online trainings' design. According to the Activity Theory, habits coming from an observant participation, enabled to create a design model. Four MOOC projects of the agency served as case studies. After the presentation of specific design choices and quantitative results obtained in every project, the representations coming from experiences are analysed following the realisation of semi-directive interviews. In the end, this work offers a methodological description of design and analysis that includes the design and experiences. New perspectives in the design of trainings are caused regarding knowledge mediation, its strategic and changing dimensions.

López Ordosgoitia, R. (2019). Analyse sémio-pragmatique multimodale de la mise en scène de la participation des enfants  dans les dispositifs télévisuels.  Le cas de Mi Señal (Colombie) [PhD thesis, Lille 3].

From Mi Señal study - a multiplatform device set up by the Colombian public television Señal Colombia - our case study offers an analysis of media contribution of young audiences. The interactive offer identification is for evaluating the terms of the contribution and the evolution of communicative interaction, which is organised between media industry and target audience. Our theory reveals that the implementation of a contribution offer for kids transforms their audience condition, and allow them to become users in the participation culture (Jenkins, 2013). Nevertheless, this dimension is determined by material constraints which estimate the balance in participants' decision making (Carpentier, 2002). The thesis takes part in the entire characterisation of the media phenomenon studied through a semio-pragmatic multimodal approach. The research perspective chosen makes it possible to express three interrogations that focus on the communication goals of the production authority, the evolution of communicative interaction, and kids' answer directly related to their communication roles. The results show that Mi Señal participation proves to be massive and customised into a predefined action framework. They also take the importance of a contribution model regulated through digital mediation tools into account. The diversity of roles given to kids reveals the difficulty of a device that opens a clear space of regulation and freedom according to the consumption practices of kids.

Loubère, L. (2018). Les environnements numériques de travail dans l’enseignement secondaire : étude d’un système représentationnel [PhD thesis, Toulouse 3].

Virtual learning environments (VLE) are a separate tool in ICTs because their development is widespread and the institution made compulsory their use. The thesis proposes to wonder how this tool has included the teaching professional thought from an approach based on the theory of social representations. This work is composed of two phases. The first one is dedicated to study the social speech on ICTs. It is also based on the analysis of three textual corpus corresponding to three types of institutional speeches (media speeches, institutional texts and educational digital of 2015). Through a lexicometric approach, we propose to identify the different themes to these corpus and the particular ones. The second phase focuses on a questionnaire survey of 625 secondary teachers from Toulouse. In this thesis, we studied professional representations' content of four items: VLE, the teaching job, information and communication notion. The system complexity formed by these four items enables to notice that the representations of teaching job and VLE haven't got many common content. However, they both share numerous elements with information and communication's representations.

Markina, A. (2020). Design d’expérience et communication professionnelle. [PhD thesis, Bourgogne Franche-Comté].

The work is part of a project that gathers the company - which increases significantly and where the activity aims at offering services for independent workers, job seekers and persons who want to improve their career - and two research labs. There are: the research laboratory in information and communication sciences of the University of Bourgogne (UB) and Le2i (UMR CNRS 6306). The IT laboratory of the University of Bourgogne and the CheckSem team work together on semantic modelling and its using by smart systems. Scientific and industrial main purposes of the thesis are: 1) To locate in the digital devices study, with the help of information and communication sciences knowledge. 2) To describe users' experience of a community and collaborative platform that connects talents and acting skills. 3) To observe the differences between professional, industrial, digital cultures, and to evaluate the quality of media and knowledge transfer as part of the platform as well as its partners. 4) To study the relations between the user experience and artificial intelligence algorithms that connects talents and suggestions. 5) To question data and algorithms ethics through the matter of accessibility and resource, knowledge, orders or suggestions equity made by the platform. These purposes mainly affect the connection between the platform's prediction algorithms and user experience. Both are studied separately: IT creates algorithms whereas cognitive psychology determines the interface structure quality. This case study is original because it builds the design of artificial intelligence modules - by writing business rules - with the design of user experience. Furthermore, artifical intelligence modules - that have an impact directly on the professional project - may appear in the social and economic structure of a given area by reinforcing the local network. The method used contains design methods and the use of evaluation and impact surveys. It will be necessary to do statistical analyses of use traces, but also large-scale questionnaires and quality interviews.

Michet, F. (2020). Du CDI physique au CDI numérique : articulation des espaces documentaires réels et de l’offre numérique aux usagers [PhD thesis, Bordeaux 3].

This reflective work aims at understanding management, educational and communicative practices implemented by librarians in order to create links between physical and digital school libraries. So, we led a survey of 41 librarians including 39 secondary school libraries in PACA region. Our study is divided into two successive phases: an introduction questionnaire followed by a semi-directive interview. Once built, it was analysed "episode by episode" showing the important scenes for actors (routine and unusual ones). We compared the meaning of words with alternative logics to distinguish the specific trends to some institutions. Librarians use the digital depending on their wishes, opportunities and resources. They also depend on school libraries. Current studies are interested in school libraries thanks to their educational or digital aspects, but there aren't many that link both directly. As a result, how can the librarian - torned between institutional injunctions and professional needs - propose a service that satisfies to users in its global organisation?

Picard-Gallart, A. (2019). L’intégration des technologies numériques à l’École : discours et pratiques en tension : étude d’une expérimentation « tablettes » en collège [PhD thesis, Bourgogne Franche-Comté].

The research focuses on digital educative policies and on implemented methods to encourage students and teachers using the school digital technologies. This work took place from July 2013 to October 2015 in a secondary school, involved in the tablet experiment for digital education (TED). The research is on the appropriation procedures of a mobile technology that is educative and is on developing new innovative and enriched instrumented methods. Several observation methods were combined in order to analyse the real or expected effects of using a socio-technical item at school and the users' appropriation conditions. The analysis enables to reveal important tensions between prescribed practices - by speeches, national school policies, experiment, technical subject - and users' real ones.

Pierot, E. (2019). Humanités numériques et organisation des connaissances : proposition d’un modèle d’interopérabilité entre les communautés épistémiques [PhD thesis, Aix-Marseille].

Our PhD thesis is part of a reference and represents the "information society" as well as "knowledge economy". They make up an example of economic, technological, political and cultural development which maintains its success on the emergence of info-communicative activities of members' company. The conditions in these socio technical devices make the implementation of info-communicative procedures possible because they are compatible with users' needs. Whereas the activities require the use of online libraries that help to spread knowledge on the Internet. This audience study permitted to explain that info-communicative procedures and instrumented knowledge organisation systems contribute to the development of epistemic communities. They also contribute to the creation of common goods. These try to examine the conditions in which a common intelligence is possible. After identifying the important elements of common intelligence on the Internet, we offer an example as a model dedicated to interoperability between the epistemic communities.

Samout, R. (2019). L’accès à l’information en situation de handicap : le cas des étudiants en déficit visuel [PhD thesis, Lille 3].

This thesis aims at proving the practicability of an approach based on the user experience in order to develop websites. These websites are adpated to persons who have eyesight issues. Based on an informational methods' analysis of a set of students, a model for "concept proof" was created and developed. There are two types of results obtained in this work: an analysis of needs defined from interviews and a IT development.

Sorolla Labrador, M. (2018). Médiation numérique des savoirs : analyse d’un dispositif info-communicationnel à l’école primaire en Espagne [PhD thesis, Toulouse 2].

The case study aims at understanding the stakes of digital tools and cooperative work at primary school in Spain through the implementation and analysis of an info-communicative device. Based on elements coming from the information, knowledge and devices theory, we analyse the interactions between knowledge and information by using media within this device. Communication and informative procedures that occur in the device aim at understanding how persons build knowledge from scientific one. How can this knowledge be manipulated as circulating digital information? A technical element of the device is Google Classroom. Knowledge is also developed thanks to cooperative work with a method based on constructive and socio constructive examples, and online apprenticeship model. We introduce ICTs as a media element between the persons, teachers and apprenticeship subject. Our method is part of the interpretivism example supporting that a split between the observer and subject doesn't exist. Knowledge can only occur through an understanding process. We try to analyse how the players use digital tools and how they get circulating information in the device set up to develop knowledge.

Tadier, E. (2018). Les corps du livre, du codex au numérique. Enjeux des corporéités d’une forme médiatique : vers une anthropologie communicationnelle du livre [PhD thesis, Sorbonne University].

The case study deals with the book as a media form. The Western conception of communication led by this medium compares the material form of the book and its symbolic function. The thesis draws on forms to interpret the changes linked to the "digital book" emergence. The book ensures a media function between the partners of the exchange which are absent from each other. This absence is considered as an important principal, working on the communicative process of the book, in wich the materialisation would form the "meeting" possibility. To what extent does the book borrow from the body model in order to take responsibility for its media function and to create its "symbolic operativity"? Changing the look of this object considered as fixed, we question its inscription dynamic process in social life. Considering the "diverse" dimensions of its creation, we try to take the corporealities' stakes of the book between language, text and support. Our theory is that the book gives itself as an alternative body led by a thought on the actors' co-presence, in which they are present. The aim is to question the medium corporealities and to analyse how the book contributes in cultural and social conceptions' structure of the body in return. Redesigning the media stakes, this work installs the perspectives of a communicational anthropology, inviting us to reconsider the media compared to a re-articulation of connections between nature and culture.

Turet, A. (2018). L’impossible éducation critique et politique au numérique : territoires, dispositifs, métiers et acteurs [PhD thesis, Bordeaux 3].

This thesis aims at identifying the involvement degrees of the State thanks to critical and political digital education. It analyses the public devices that are linked to the spread of digital uses and the characteristics of professionals and volunteers in charge of their implementation. To what extent does the action and formation devices' set up helps or hinders the work of actors for training the population in a critical and political understanding of digital development? Do these actors develop methods for adopting or avoiding these devices in order to guarantee their training and education actions? The corpus is composed of 5 extra sources: French and European regulatory texts with 699 job offers and training skills bases, 1 questionnaire survey of a 140-digital mediators sample, 10 interviews with professionals on digital mediation, 2 monographs coming from 2 observation periods within two animation entities Digital Public Space networks. The study shows that critical and political education is in minority, replaced by the "good practices" initiation of the Internet uses which is based on controlling tools. The set up of devices leads to training impediment of the population in the issues of digital society. It produces a double constraint between the search for behavioural performances to satisfy economic demands and the search for critical distance thanks to the digital society interest. Only subversion cases and activist commitment (free softwares, sustainable development, anti-GAFAM, ...) resist this injunction of normative development. The thesis reveals 4 major phases in this evolution: 1) from 1967 to 1984, the genesis time of methods for the massification of computer uses. 2) from 1985 to 1999, the time of methods for the tools and uses appropriation. 3) from 2000 to 2011, the time of the Internet public access. 4) from 2012 to 2016, the time of the cultural divide decrease in digital technology. After uncertainties of the beginnings (phase 1), the initiation system to digital uses led to computer club leaders' disqualification (phase 2), prevented the offer of national and popular education systems (phase 3), and led to local leaders' self-censorship who aren't encouraged to think on digital society (phase 3 and 4). However, it produces a critical education through some multimedia animator figures in employment (phase 3), and the "hacker" or "systemist" animator in employment (phase 4). As a result, the critical digital education remains a blind spot in the regulations, without qualifications or financial flows to support it. The risk remains because digital technology will become a new tool for social reproduction and differentiation.

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