The covid pandemic brings many changes and concerns, while providing a source of practices rescued from previous contexts or practices with new potentials. Thus, from mutual schooling to peer scaffolding via tutoring, we find documented experiences to the effect that young people who share the same learning community at school (classroom or school) can help their classmates to get knowledge included in their curriculum. The development of situations could be considered as semi-formal as long as they are not entirely recommended by the institution, without however being completely non-formal in Schugurensky's opinion (2007) ("each organised school activity takes place outside the official school system").
In peer tutoring, there is an emerging partnership between the PERISCOPE network in Quebec (Plateforme Échange Recherche Intervention sur la SCOlarité: Persévérance et réussitE) and the GIS2if (Groupement d'Intérêt Scientifique Innovation, Interdisciplinarité, Formation1), is anchored in several traditions. In France, peer teaching dates back to the first half of the 19th century, as shown by Faillet's work (2018, 2020). He is a teacher and researcher within the GIS2if in France and is a co-author of the first part of this document (the mutual school or classroom). Anglo-Saxon work also provides essential information on the contribution of young people to the formal learning of their peers. The second part of this document reveals results obtained when 16-year-old teenagers and under this age are in a peer tutoring situation (Tutop).
This document provides a review on the issue that leads to the launch of intervention and (participative) research programmes on peer tutoring as a lead of action whereas formal learning often occurs in a school-home (or other) situation.
Mutual school or class ou la classe mutuelle
Nowadays, lecture education is dominant in the school system and has its origins in simultaneous teaching, theorised as early as 1680 by a French clergyman, Jean-Baptiste de La SalleHe created the Institute of the Christian Schools' Brothers in Reims, where a teacher taught a large number of pupils who are gathered by age. It was new at the time. This method made it possible to create better teaching conditions and to unify school equipment, but it required pupils to remain seated in a room focused on the teacher's pulpit. In France, it became the norm following the Guizot law on primary education on 28 June, 1833.
Yet, there was another way of teaching and learning in mutual schools. In classes combining ages and levels, the most advanced pupils in reading, writing or arithmetic were in charge of sharing their knowledge with others. In front of small wall charts that help the teacher, it was the mutual teaching method. It was quite successful in Europe and throughout the world. According to a studyof the Somme department, Bruno Poucet declares that with this method "learning how to read (but not to spell) was done in three years instead of six". However, considerations that were probably more political and religious than educational eventually curbed its spread until it disappeared.
Since 2015, the mutual teaching method has been studied again as part of an action-research project led by Lycée Dorian (Paris 11) and in other French schools through the "mutual class" experiment. In this one, the school form is questioned because the implementation of the mutual teaching method is accompanied by a reflection on the school organisation and on the rules prevailed in classrooms: various furniture, various types of seating, freedom of movement for pupils, numerous wall charts for them, and so on.
Peer tutoring (Tutop)
In class, peer tutoring (Tutop) is a formative connection between two or more pupils where one teaches the other (Topping, 2005, 2020). A tutor has sufficient expertise in a topic so that they help a pupil how to learn a skill or concept (Leung, 2015). Tutop is an effective educational method that is widely enriched by research and supported by meta-analyses (Alegre and al., 2018, 2019; Bowman-Perrott and al., 2016; Hott and al., 2014; Leung, 2015, 2018; Maroto & Lorenzo-Valentin, 2019; Moeyaert and al., 2019; Tenenbaum and al., 2020).
Tutop increases pupils' school activity and its programmes are cost-effective (Barrette and Lapostolle, 2007; Fisher & Frey, 2019). It intensifies the whole academic success (Moeyaert and al., 2019), academic performance of tutors (Alegre and al., 2019; Flores and al., 2018; Hwang and al., 2018; Leung, 2015, 2018; Marenco Dominiguez, 2018; Moeyaert and al., 2019). Tutop favours motivation (Désy, 2000; Evans and Moores, 2013; Kim and al., 2018), literacy (Bournot-Trites and al., 2003; Duran and al., 2020; Jones and al., 2016; Kirova and al., 2018; Potvin and al., 2012), numeracy (Alegre and al., 2019; Greene and al., 2018; Thurston and al., 2020) as well as the development of important skills such as metacognitive strategies (Duran and al., 2020; Flores and Duran, 2013), social skills (Alegre and al., 2017; Gottfried and al., 2018; Lee, 2014; Moeyaert and al., 2019; Xu, 2015) with an added socio-emotional input for tutors (Désy, 2000; Roseth and al., 2008).
Even if Tutop doesn't occur in class, pupils who have better understood the concepts can help their classmates for getting them, especially as tutors are in the same classroom, learning and assessment situation (LAS), so they have a common frame of reference. Therefore, Tutop reduces the risks of ruptures that would be experienced with an external tutor.
Even more so, Tutop is a "win-win" solution. Helpers help mentees and reinforce their learning by teaching them (Evans & Moores, 2013; Galbraith & Winterbottom, 2010; Ruegg and al., 2017), which increases their confidence through their abilities (Bournot-Trites and al., 2003; Désy, 2000).
It is also an idea which deals with various situations at different educational levels. It works, among others, with autistic people (Aldabas, 2019; Haas and al., 2020), with a language disorder (Grünke and al., 2016), a physical disability (Cervantes and al., 2013; Dugas, 2014; Klavina and al., 2013) or a non-visible disability (Morand and al., 2015).
Nevertheless, Tutop doesn't follow a single method. There are several effective alternatives such as cooperative learning (Abrami, 1995), collaborative learning, directive tutoring, facilitative tutoring (Berghmans and al., 2014), peer-to-peer and same-age tutoring, and cooperative, competitive, one-way and reciprocal tutoring (Bowman-Perrott and al., 2016). Other forms using social networks and forums on the Internet (Faillet, 2020) are likely to exist.
Furthermore, several elements play a role in its implementation: teachers' attitudes towards inclusive practices (Avramidis and al., 2019), tutors' epistemological posture (Back, 2016; Berzin, 2012), understanding of their role (Berzin, 2012), family support (Blanch and al., 2012), learning assessment (Davin & Donato, 2013), the type of construction used (De Backer and al., 2016), the difficulty of teaching task (Duran, 2016), peer intimidation and cheating (Borup, 2016), the use of technological resources (Evans & Moores, 2013 ; Keane & Loch, 2017 ; Liu & Lan, 2016 ; Mackiewicz and al., 2010) as well as other organisational aspects (Topping, 2014).
Interventionand research programmes to be launched
In Quebec, the PERISCOPE network has just left a thesis on action leads to the Cabinet of the Minister of Education and Higher Education (MÉES), leading to a Summit on academic success. The challenge is to deal with the current state of formal education for young people while the pandemic persists. Three action leads are prioritised, and peer tutoring (Tutop) is the first among these. Tutop implements tutoring carried out by contributors, especially retirees or people in training.
In Quebec, the Centre de services scolaires des Laurentides is the first to set up a peer tutoring programme.
In order to promote pupil tenacity and success, the PERISCOPE network focuses on intensifying players and pupils' participation. It wants to participate to such actions and is already collaborating with the Centre de services scolaires de la Rivière-du-Nord, which, with the help of the Centre de transfert pour la réussite éducative du Québec, is seeking to update the pupil exit profile implemented in its Commitment to Success Plan 2018-2022Community organisations Le Diplôme avant la Médaille and Maison Jeunes-Est de Sherbrooke are also planning or carrying out actions. So, peer tutoring is becoming an important action, a source of pupil contribution in their learning and a new research subject to be studied. Researchers from the PERISCOPE network will be interested in it if this action is led by the Quebec ministry of education and higher education (MÉES).
Several participative research leads have already been identified, especially related to the GIS2if in France They are about the practices of teachers, parents and learners, the possibilities and constraints of digital or physical environments and the organisational rules of institutions that offer, promote or accept this practice.
What is finally at stake is the evolution of "school shape", in particular to some of its essential elements like the gathering of pupils in classes in a given place and time, the structure of the school space and classroom, the posture of teachers and openness to the environment. As a result, it is important to pay attention to learning because what young people are able to learn or cope is the composite product of school contributions, conditions, dispositions and opportunities that we should try to take them into consideration.
For example, one of the most attractive questions in 2021 is how pupils progress in this world between the various resources proposed, which they can access, under peers' influence or thanks to schools' request, which can give instrumented tasks. The cognitive integration of the various information controversed and collected, often occurs through trusted players, including parents, teachers and different peer networks.
The challenge is to understand how peer mediation works for accessing to a logical culture at home and in class, especially during the transition from primary to secondary school. It also focuses on using which platforms and content validation methods.
These questions can also be easily adapted to common education situations.
For now, it is necessary to create and maintain attention towards controlled learning and assessment situations for a certain period of time because it is also necessary to understand what is at stake rather than to confirm a result predicted by a theory (since there is no consensual one). So, it is a question of setting up cooperative or collaborative research linked to practitioners who are in charge of transmitting values and knowledge. It will be possible to work in a field that contrasts in terms of public and modes using to resources during prescribed notion appropriation tasks that are partially or totally at distance.
Abrami, P. C. (1995). Classroom connections: understanding and using cooperative learning. Harcourt Brace.
Aldabas, R. (2019). Effectiveness of peer-mediated interventions (PMIs) on children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a systematic review. Early Child Development and Care, 190(10), 1586–1603.https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2019.1580275
Alegre Ansuategui, F. J., & Moliner Miravet, L. (2017). Emotional and cognitive effects of peer tutoring among secondary school mathematics students. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 48(8), 1185–1205. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739x.2017.1342284
Alegre, F., Moliner, L., Maroto, A., & Lorenzo-Valentin, G. (2018). Peer tutoring in mathematics in primary education: a systematic review. Educational Review, 71(6), 767–791. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2018.1474176
Alegre, F., Moliner, L., Maroto, A., & Lorenzo-Valentin, G. (2019). Peer tutoring in algebra: A study in Middle school. The Journal of Educational Research, 112(6), 693–699. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2019.1693947
Avramidis, E., Toulia, A., Tsihouridis, C., & Strogilos, V. (2019). Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion and their self‐efficacy for inclusive practices as predictors of willingness to implement peer tutoring. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 19(S1), 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-3802.12477
Back, M. (2016). Epistemics and Expertise in Peer Tutoring Interactions: Co-Constructing Knowledge of Spanish. The Modern Language Journal, 100(2), 508–521. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12334
Barrette, C., & Lapostolle, L. (2007). L’aide par les pairs : effet positif ou négatif? Correspondances, 12(4).http://bit.ly/IMcuqa
Berghmans, I., Michiels, L., Salmon, S., Dochy, F., & Struyven, K. (2014). Directive versus facilitative
peer tutoring? A view on students’ appraisal, reported learning gains and experiences within
two differently-tutored learning environments. Learning Environments Research, 17(3), 437–459.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-014-9168-8
Berzin, C. (2012). Tutorat entre pairs et théorie implicite d’enseignement. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 179(2), 73–82.
Blanch, S., Duran, D., Valdebenito, V., & Flores, M. (2012). The effects and characteristics of family involvement on a peer tutoring programme to improve the reading comprehension competence. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(1), 101–119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0104-y
Bournot-Trites, M., Lee, E., & Séror, J. (2003). Tutorat par les pairs en lecture : une collaboration parents-école en milieu d’immersion française. Revue des sciences de l’éducation, 29(1), 195– 210. https://doi.org/10.7202/009498ar
Borup, J. (2016). Teacher Perceptions of Learner-Learner Engagement at a Cyber High School. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i3.2361
Bowman-Perrott, L., deMarín, S., Mahadevan, L., & Etchells, M. (2016). Assessing the Academic, Social, and Language Production Outcomes of English Language Learners Engaged in Peer Tutoring: A Systematic Review. Education and Treatment of Children, 39(3), 359–388. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2016.0016
Briggs, D. Une méthode d’enseignement mutuel entre enfants, Revue Perspective (UNESCO), Volume VI N°3, 1976
Cervantes, C. M., Lieberman, L. J., Magnesio, B., & Wood, J. (2013). Peer Tutoring: Meeting the Demands of Inclusion in Physical Education Today. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 84(3), 43–48.https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2013.767712
Davin, K. J., & Donato, R. (2013). Student Collaboration and Teacher-Directed Classroom Dynamic Assessment: A Complementary Pairing. Foreign Language Annals, 46(1), 5–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12012
De Backer, L., Van Keer, H., & Valcke, M. (2016). Eliciting Reciprocal Peer-Tutoring Groups’ Metacognitive Regulation Through Structuring and Problematizing Scaffolds. The Journal of Experimental Education, 84(4), 804–828.https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2015.1134419
Désy, J. (2000). Les bénéfices socioaffectifs du tutorat par les pairs. Correspondance, 5(3).http://correspo.ccdmd.qc.ca/Corr5-3/Desy.html
Dugas, C. (2014). L’inclusion en éducation physique : notions théoriques et applications pédagogiques. Presses de l’Université du Québec.
Duran, D. (2016). Learning-by-teaching. Evidence and implications as a pedagogical mechanism. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 54(5), 476–484. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2016.1156011
Duran, D., Ribosa, J., & Sánchez, G. (2020). Peer tutoring for improvement in rhythm reading fluency and comprehension.International Journal of Music Education, 38(2), 299–312. https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761419898313
Evans, M. J., & Moore, J. S. (2013). Peer tutoring with the aid of the internet: peer tutoring with the aid of the internet. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(1), 144–155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01280.x
Faillet, V. (2018). Apprendre autrement : l’expérience de la « classe mutuelle ». La conversation.https://theconversation.com/apprendre-autrement-lexperience-de-la-classe-mutuelle-97326
Faillet, V. (2020). La métamorphose de l’école. Publishroom factory.
Faillet, V. (2020). Remodeler sa salle de classe et sa pédagogie. Canopé Éditions
Faillet, V. (2020).Les forums Internet, espaces de discussions scolaires pour le travail des lycéens ? Revue Adjectif, 2020 T1
Faillet, V. (2017). TED. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yn1YMTfbUqI
Faillet, V. (2017). Vidéo séquence en classe : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zofet2ScIJI
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2019). Peer tutoring: “to teach is to learn twice.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 62(5), 583–586. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.922
Flores, D.I.G., Ibarra, M.E.U., Treviño, M.G.V., Campos, C.C., & Tejeda, A.T.L. (2018). Peer Tutoring As An Improvement Strategy For School Exploitation. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(4), 953-961.https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.953
Flores, M., & Duran, D. (2013). Effects of Peer Tutoring on Reading Self-Concept [JD]. IJEP – International Journal of Educational Psychology, 3, 297–324. https://doi.org/10.4471/ijep.2013.29
Galbraith, J., & Winterbottom, M. (2010). Peer‐tutoring: what’s in it for the tutor? Educational Studies, 37(3), 321–332.https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2010.506330
Gottfried, M., Garcia, E., & Kim, H. Y. (2018). Peer tutoring instructional practice and kindergartners’ achievement and socioemotional development. Educational Studies, 45(5), 593–612.https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2018.1509779
Greene, I., Tiernan, A. M., & Holloway, J. (2018). Cross-Age Peer Tutoring and Fluency-Based Instruction to Achieve Fluency with Mathematics Computation Skills: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Behavioral Education, 27(2), 145–171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-018-9291-1
Grünke, M., Janning, A. M., & Sperling, M. (2016). The Effects of a Peer-tutoring Intervention on the Text Production of Students With Learning and Speech Problems: A Case Report. Learning Disabilities — A Contemporary Journal, 14(2), 225–235.
Haas, A., Vannest, K., Thompson, J. L., Fuller, M. C., & Wattanawongwan, S. (2020). Peer-Mediated Instruction and Academic Outcomes for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of Quality Indicators. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 28(5), 625–642. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2020.1859330
Hott, B. L., Alresheed, F. M., & Henry, H. R. (2014). Peer Tutoring Interventions for Student with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta – Synthesis. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 15(1–2).https://doi.org/10.2478/jser-2014-0007
Hwang, W.-Y., Nguyen, T.-H., & Pham, X.-L. (2018). Peer Tutoring to Facilitate Cognitive Diffusion of English as a Foreign Language Learning: Using Speech Translation and Shadowing in Familiar Authentic Contexts. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(4), 901–929. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633118776209
Jones, G., Ostojic, D., Menard, J., Picard, E., & Miller, C. J. (2016). Primary prevention of reading failure: Effect of universal peer tutoring in the early grades. The Journal of Educational Research, 110(2), 171–176.https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2015.1060929
Keane, T., & Loch, B. (2017). Peer tutoring using student-made screencasts. Australian Senior Mathematics Journal, 31(2), 6–21.
Kim, N. J., Belland, B. R., & Axelrod, D. (2018). Scaffolding for Optimal Challenge in K–12 Problem-Based Learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1712
Kirova, A., & Jamison, N. M. (2018). Peer scaffolding techniques and approaches in preschool
children’s multiliteracy practices with iPads. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 16(3), 245–257.https://doi.org/10.1177/1476718×18775762
Klavina, A., Jerlinder, K., Kristén, L., Hammar, L., & Soulie, T. (2013). Cooperative oriented learning in inclusive physical education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 29(2), 119–134.https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2013.859818
Lee, Y. (2014). Promise for Enhancing Children’s Reading Attitudes Through Peer Reading: A Mixed Method Approach. The Journal of Educational Research, 107(6), 482–492. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2013.836469
Leung, K. C. (2015). Preliminary empirical model of crucial determinants of best practice for peer
tutoring on academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(2), 558–579.https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037698
Leung, K. C. (2018). An updated meta-analysis on the effect of peer tutoring on tutors’ achievement. School Psychology International, 40(2), 200–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034318808832
Leung, K. C. (2019). Compare the moderator for pre-test-post-test design in peer tutoring with treatment-control/comparison design. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 34(4), 685–703.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-018-00412-6
Mackiewicz, S. M., Wood, C. L., Cooke, N. L., & Mazzotti, V. L. (2010). Effects of Peer Tutoring With
Audio Prompting on Vocabulary Acquisition for Struggling Readers. Remedial and Special Education, 32(4), 345–354.https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932510362507
Marenco Dominguez, J. M. (2018). Peer-tutoring Fosters Spoken Fluency in Computer-mediated Tasks. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 10(2), 271–296. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2017.10.2.5
Maroto, A., & Lorenzo-Valentin, G. (2019). Peer tutoring in mathematics in primary education: a systematic review. Educational Review, 71(6), 767–791.
Moeyaert, M., Klingbeil, D. A., Rodabaugh, E., & Turan, M. (2019). Three-Level Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Data Regarding the Effects of Peer Tutoring on Academic and Social-Behavioral Outcomes for At-Risk Students and Students With Disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 42(2), 94–106. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932519855079
Morand, J., Landry, F., Goupil, G., & Bonenfant, N. (2015). Tutorat par les pairs pour des étudiants en situation de handicap non visible : la perception des tuteurs. Revue Internationale de Pédagogie de l’enseignement Supérieur, 31(2).https://doi.org/10.4000/ripes.972
Potvin, M.-C., Dion, E., Brodeur, M., & Borri-Anadon, C. (2012). Utiliser le tutorat par les pairs pour favoriser l’apprentissage de la lecture en milieu défavorisé. Une pré-expérimentation avec examen des caractéristiques des non-répondants. Revue canadienne de l’éducation, 35(2), 285-302. https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/1121
Ruegg, R., Sudo, T., Takeuchi, H., & Sato, Y. (2017). Peer tutoring: active and collaborative learning in practice. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 8(3), 255–267. https://doi.org/10.37237/080306
Liu, S. H.-J. & Lan, Y.-J. (2016). Social Constructivist Approach to Web-Based EFL Learning: Collaboration, Motivation, and Perception on the Use of Google Docs. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 19(1), 171–186.
Roseth, C. J., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Y. (2008). Promoting early adolescents’ achievement and peer relationships: The effects of cooperative, competitive and individualistic goal structures. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 223–246.
Schugurensky, D. (2007). « Vingt mille lieues sous les mers » : Les quatre défis de l’apprentissage informel (M. Rieu, Trad.). Revue française de pédagogie. Recherches en éducation, 160, 13‑27. https://doi.org/10.4000/rfp.583
Tenenbaum, H. R., Winstone, N. E., Leman, P. J., & Avery, R. E. (2020). How effective is peer interaction in facilitating learning? A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(7), 1303–1319. https://doi-org.acces.bibl.ulaval.ca/10.1037/edu00004
Thurston, A., Roseth, C., Chiang, T.-H., Burns, V., & Topping, K. J. (2020). The influence of social relationships on outcomes in mathematics when using peer tutoring in elementary school. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1, 100004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100004
Topping, K. J. (2005). Trends in Peer Learning. Educational psychology, 25(6), 631-645.
Topping, K. J. (2020). Peer Tutoring and Cooperative Learning. Dans Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.1432
Xu, Y. (2015). Examining the effects of adapted peer tutoring on social and language skills of young English language learners. Early Child Development and Care, 185(10), 1587–1600.https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2015.1011150